La Comisión Europea ha aprobado un conjunto de inversiones por un valor de 222 millones de euros para facilitar la transición de Europa hacia un futuro más sostenible y bajo en carbono en el marco del programa LIFE de Medio ambiente y Acción por el Clima.
De los 139 proyectos anunciados en la UE, 44 están presentados por entidades españolas y recibirán una financiación de 79,4 millones de euros.
Bruselas ha dicho que con la financiación de las últimas iniciativas LIFE, que provienen de 20 Estados miembros, se movilizarán inversiones totales por 379 millones de euros.
Explicó el ejecutivo europeo en un comunicado que el programa LIFE va a destinar 181,9 millones de euros a proyectos en los ámbitos del medio ambiente y la eficiencia en el uso de los recursos, la naturaleza y la biodiversidad, así como la gobernanza e información medioambientales.
Esta decisión está en consonancia con el paquete sobre la economía circular de la Comisión. Entre tales proyectos, cabe destacar el ensayo de un prototipo italiano que podría transformar de una manera rentable los vehículos de gasolina en vehículos híbridos; la creación de bioproductos a partir de lodos de depuradora en los Países Bajos; y la aplicación de un nuevo tratamiento biológico para eliminar plaguicidas y nitratos de las aguas en el sur de España.
También hay proyectos que contribuirán a la aplicación del Plan de acción en pro de la naturaleza, en particular a la gestión de espacios Natura 2000. Un centro de interés es la protección de especies, de lo que se ocupa, por ejemplo, un proyecto transfronterizo esloveno a favor de la supervivencia de una especie de lince alpino muy amenazado.
En el ámbito de la acción por el clima, la UE va a invertir 40,2 millones en iniciativas de adaptación y atenuación del cambio climático y de gobernanza e información en la materia. Las iniciativas seleccionadas contribuyen al objetivo de la UE de reducir las emisiones de gases de efecto invernadero en al menos un 40 % para 2030 con respecto a los niveles de 1990. La financiación de LIFE, por ejemplo, ayudará a reforzar la resiliencia de una de las vías navegables más congestionada de Europa, el estuario del Escalda en Bélgica; a desarrollar herramientas para prevenir las tormentas de polvo del desierto; y a contrarrestar el efecto de isla térmica en las ciudades.
Hay que recordar que el programa LIFE es el instrumento financiero de la UE para el medio ambiente y la acción por el clima. Funciona desde 1992 y ha cofinanciado más de 4.500 proyectos en toda la UE y en terceros países, movilizando más de 9.000 millones y contribuyendo con más de 4.000 millones a la protección del medio ambiente y el clima. En este momento están en curso unos 1.100 proyectos. Para el período 2014-2020, este programa cuenta con un presupuesto de 3.400 millones.
España en el LIFE 2017
De los 44 últimos proyectos españoles que recibirán subvención, 32 corresponden a Medio ambiente y Eficiencia de Recursos con una financiación de € 55,6 millones. Cinco iniciativas son del área de Naturaleza y Biodiversidad, con € 12,5 millones. Un proyecto es de Gobernanza medioambiental e Información con 0,8 millón. Además, cuatro proyectos españoles se relacionan con la Adaptación al Cambio Climático, y reciben € 8,2 millones y dos iniciativas son de Mitigación de Cambio Climático, con una financiación de 2,4 millones de euros.
Resumen de los 44 nuevos proyectos españoles
LIFE Naturaleza y Biodiversidad
Restoring habitats on a rare songbird’s migration route (LIFE PALUDICOLA)
The aquatic warbler (Acrocephalus paudicola) is a specialist migratory bird species whose preferred habitats include large open reedlands, peatlands and fens with species of the genus Cladium. It is suffering a serious decline in western and central Europe due to the loss of its habitats, mainly caused by drainage of shallow wetlands, peatlands and flood plains for use as agricultural land or for peat extraction. The project will restore and improve some 380 hectares of preferred aquatic warbler habitat in Spain, which is on the species’ main migration route between Europe and Africa.
Habitat improvement for Bonelli’s eagle (AQUALIA a-LIFE)
Between the 1970s and 1990s, Bonelli’s eagle (Hieraaetus fasciatus) disappeared from many western Mediterranean areas. To increase its occurrence and reverse the current regressive population trend, this project will focus on restoring the habitats where it once lived. Among other actions, it will release birds in areas where a previous project (LIFE BONELLI) has achieved some success in reintroducing the species. AQUALIA a-LIFE will also address a range of threats to the eagle.
Helping the Cantabrian brown bear expand its range (LIFE OSO COUREL)
In recent years there has been an increase in numbers of the Cantabrian brown bear (Ursus arctos). However, the population is still under threat. Serra do Courel in Galicia is an important potential expansion zone for the brown bear. This LIFE project will take steps to enable the species to become permanantly established there. Habitats will be connected and made more suitable for bears. Outreach work with the local community and interest groups (farmers, graziers, hunters) will seek to promote greater social acceptance of the presence of this large carnivore.
Maintaining protected habitats on common land (LIFE IN COMMON LAND)
How do you manage protected habitats situated on land with common grazing rights? This project in the Sierra do Xistral Natura 2000 network site in Galicia, north-west Spain, hopes to provide some answers. To prevent conflict between nature conservation and economic activities, it will introduce integrated, results-based management of common land where Atlantic wet heaths, raised bogs and blanket bogs are found. Measures will include management of livestock density and the implementation of payment schemes for people exercising their grazing rights. The goal is to incorporate these schemes into the regional rural development plan to ensure results are sustained and replicated.
Alternative conservation strategies for Mediterranean alder forests (LIFE ALNUS)
Mediterranean alder forests are in decline, but the causes are not fully understood. To address this, LIFE ALNUS will design and promote alternative conservation strategies to improve the condition of alder forests in Catalonia. These include creating hundreds of core areas of dispersed habitat from which plants can expand outwards, increasing the area of alder forest, restoring connectivity and ecological functioning. These strategies will be tested in three pilot areas with a view to replicating the methods throughout the Mediterranean.
LIFE Environment & Resource Efficiency
Identifying the most polluting vehicles in real time (LIFE GySTRA)
Targeting a reduction in air pollution in towns and cities, the project will develop a tool that will remotely measure real-time vehicle emissions in order to identify high-emitting vehicles. The tool will be tested in real conditions on vehicles driving in Madrid and on a fleet of buses in the Austrian city of Graz. It will enable authorities to require polluting vehicles to be repaired or face a fine.
Removing phosphorous with natural coagulants (LIFE NEWEST)
Phosphorous is widely used in agricultural fertilisers, detergents, household cleaning products and industrial processes. As a result, more phosphorus has been measured in lakes and rivers in recent years. This project will use new, natural-based coagulants in tertiary wastewater treatment processes. These are designed to replace potentially toxic synthetic coagulants and improve the efficiency and effectiveness of phosphorous removal. Sludge from the treatment process will be used in biomethanation processes to produce biogas as well as agricultural applications.
Reusing spent yeast in brewing and pharmaceuticals (LIFE YEAST)
Brewers’ spent yeast is a brewing industry by-product. It contains a high level of nutrients. However, it is highly susceptible to rapid contamination and spoilage caused by microorganisms. This has hampered the large-scale deployment of some technologies for its reuse. This project will process spent yeast in order to generate valuable materials for a range of industrial applications. It will test, optimise and scale-up the processing of the yeast, aiming to demonstrate the commercial use of yeast constituents in the brewing and pharmaceutical industries. It will also explore options in the animal feed, wine, food and cosmetics industries. At the end of the project, a full engineering package will be developed to transfer the technology to AB InBev breweries.
Turning brewery by-products into fish food (LIFE-Brewery)
Brewers’ spent grain and spent yeast are by-products of the brewing process. Most spent grain is turned into feed, but it only has a 48-hour shelf life. Brewers’ spent yeast is mixed with wastewater and discharged as effluent. By optimising and scaling up a low carbon dehydration process the two by-products could become ingredients in aquaculture feeds. These will be tested in fish growth trials to optimise formulas and prove the potential for replication. The project is also expected to create up to 50 new jobs within three years of completion.
A new means of removing emerging pollutants from wastewater (LIFE CLEAN UP)
New and emerging pollutants are synthetic or naturally occurring chemicals that are known or suspected of causing negative impacts on human health and the environment, but which are not yet commonly monitored. This project will demonstrate and validate a new process for removing emerging pollutants from wastewater, using an absorption system coupled with advanced oxidation technology involving light pulses, photocatalysis and photosensitisers. It thereby aims to show the feasibility at industrial scale of a process to degrade pollutants and pathogens that were not previously removed.
Making bottles, jars and cosmetics using citrus peel (LIFE CITRUSPACK)
Spain produces around six million tonnes of citrus fruits per year. The sector generates a large amount of organic waste and also waste from non-biodegradable plastic packaging. This circular economy project will use treated citrus peel as a replacement for non-biodegradable plastics in the production of juice bottles and cosmetics jars. And it will complete the cycle by showing the use of pulp residues as natural ingredients in cosmetic creams.
Solar-powered treatment of fruit and vegetable processing effluent (LIFE ALGAECAN)
Fruit and vegetable processing uses a lot of water, including for cleaning produce and machinery. The sector generated an estimated 200 million m3 of wastewater in the EU in 2014. LIFE ALGAECAN will use innovative solar-powered algal treatment of effluents from fruit and vegetable processing. This is expected to produce a high-quality stream for discharge to water bodies at a fraction of the cost of standard aerobic treatment – a predicted 80% reduction in treatment costs.
Helping smaller food and drink companies evaluate their environmental footprint (Life-RENDER)
Small and medium-sized companies often struggle to evaluate the environmental performance of their products using the Product Environmental Footprint methodology. Life-RENDER will develop and demonstrate an innovative decision-support tool that will help SMEs in the food and drink sector to carry out studies and to identify focused environmental measures.
Making liquid biofuel from municipal waste (LIFE WASTE2BIOFUEL)
Treatment and reuse options are needed for municipal waste. This project will develop a new process for the thermal treatment of the biomass fraction of municipal solid waste and its processing into liquid biofuel. The process will reduce greenhouse gas emissions from waste treatment by an estimated 19%.
Using old inefficient wind turbine blades to make roads (LIFE REFIBRE)
Wind turbine blades are made of glass-fibre reinforced plastic, a composite material that is difficult to recycle. LIFE REFIBRE will design and build an innovative prototype plant to recycle the blades and obtain glass fibres, which will be added to asphalt mixes for road construction. The fibres will improve the mechanical properties of road surfaces, increasing their durability and reducing maintenance requirements and costs.
Removing pesticides and nitrates from groundwater (LIFE ECOGRANULARWATER)
Groundwater pollution can be a problem in intensively farmed areas, such as the province of Granada in southern Spain. Nitrates, phosphates and agrochemicals in soil percolate into aquifers, affecting water quality. To address this problem, this project will develop and demonstrate a new biological treatment method to remove organic and inorganic nutrients such as pesticides and nitrates from water. It is expected to remove 90% of those nutrients and make significant energy and cost savings in comparison with conventional treatment.
Removing pollutants from abandoned mines (LIFE-DEMINE)
Abandoned mines are a major contamination concern, capable of polluting surrounding soils and water with heavy metals and salts. This is why the EU Mining Waste Directive requires a risk-based inventory of closed and abandoned mine sites. LIFE-DEMINE plans to demonstrate a mining effluent treatment process that combines proven membrane and electrocoagulation technologies for washing wastewater in a novel way. This will be used to treat wastewater from two abandoned mines: Nant Bwlch-yr-Haearn in Wales, UK, and Menteroda, Germany. It is expected to remove more than 95% of metals and salts, leaving a final effluent that is within legal limits and can be discharged to water bodies without risk. The project will also analyse the composition of at least 50 abandoned mine wastewaters in different European regions in preparation for transfer and upscaling of the process.
Improving the desalination process (LIFE DREAMER)
Desalination of seawater could be an extremely important alternative source of drinking water if costs and environmental impacts can be reduced. This project seeks to show the value of an improved and more resource-efficient desalination process based on reverse osmosis. The technology aims to fully convert the seawater into usable water and other valuable products that can be used in various industries. Ultimately, the project aims to contribute to finding a long-term solution to the ever increasing pressures on global water resources.
Reducing exposure to cancer-causing formaldehyde (LIFE SENSSEI)
Formaldehyde is a high-volume compound widely used in the manufacture of resins and adhesives and as a disinfectant, preservative and industrial additive. Formaldehyde is carcinogenic, which has implications for worker health and safety. LIFE SENSSEI is developing a real-time formaldehyde monitoring and alarm system that will reduce workers’ exposure to the compound by 20% and reduce the concentration of formaldehyde in air at facilities where it is used by 80%.
Recovering valuable materials from steel galvanising (LIFE-2-ACID)
Around 20 million tonnes of galvanised steel is produced in the EU every year. Spent pickling acids from the steel galvanising process are typically treated using conventional processes, producing a residue that is sent to landfill. A new technology developed by this project promises to selectively recover zinc and iron chloride from spent pickling acids. The recovered zinc will be reused as a raw material for galvanising, and the iron chloride will be used as a reagent in wastewater treatment plants.
Using polyurethane waste in building materials (LIFE REPOLYUSE)
Polyurethane is widely found in home furnishings: more than 3.5 million tonnes of the material is used in Europe each year. This generates some 675 000 tonnes/year of waste, most of which goes to landfill. This project sets out to increase the reuse of polyurethane waste that is currently managed as inert waste, or is recovered through techniques that are not environmentally sustainable. Using a novel technology, it will integrate polyurethane waste into new building materials, thereby extending its life-cycle. Widespread uptake of the new technology would also mean less gypsum needs to be mined.
Making new food packaging from old fish boxes (LIFE EPS SURE)
Some 335,000 tonnes per year of expanded polystyrene is used for food packaging in the EU. Only 25% of this is recycled, 30% is incinerated, and the rest is landfilled. Polystyrene boxes containing fish products are a particular challenge for recyclers. LIFE EPS SURE has a potential solution: a technically and economically viable new process for converting those fish boxes into food-grade polystyrene. It will collect 10 tonnes of boxes from El Corte Inglés stores in Spain and produce 4-5 tonnes of recycled polystyrene. This will be used to make 40 prototypes of food contact packaging. A set of good manufacturing practices adapted to legal and operational requirements in Greece, Italy and the UK will set the scene for replication in those countries.
Making farming profitable again in Mediterranean oak landscapes (LIFE Regenerate)
More than six million hectares of farmland in the Mediterranean basin are noted for their oak habitats. Known as dehesas in Spain, montadosin Portugal and meriagos in Sardinia, Italy, these plantations are rapid declining as a result of rural abandonment and the low productivity as a source of wood; most are lossmaking. LIFE Regenerate intends to prove a sustainable and profitable new business model for small and medium-sized farms on oak-based silvopastoral systems in Spain and Sardinia and then scale it up to cover 5000 hectares in the three countries. The new model will be based on nature protection and resource efficiency – mosaic landscape management, multi-species rotational grazing and recycling of biomass waste to create new income streams (organic fertiliser, high-protein cattle feed, and cultivation of edible mushrooms). It is expected to increase biodiversity by 20% and bring economic benefits of €654 per hectare per year.
Making new plastic products from commercial packaging waste (LIFE RECYPACK)
There is scope to improve the management of commercial plastics packaging waste in the EU. LIFE RECYCPACK is a demonstration project to foster green public procurement of this waste stream in towns and cities and show that it is a valuable resource. It will operate two recycling facilities, in Hungary and Spain, producing recycled polyethylene and polystyrene from such waste. The recycled material will be used to manufacture new plastic products, thereby closing the loop. The project will also evaluate the potential for replication of its recycling systems and circular economy business model in Belgium, Croatia, Poland, Romania and Turkey.
Using sewage sludge in agriculture, construction and for energy (LIFE DRY4GAS)
LIFE DRY4GAS will develop a pilot plant to dry sewage sludge from wastewater treatment plants for reuse in energy generation, the construction industry and agriculture. The technology will be installed at an existing treatment plant in Torrepacheco,Spain, where it is expected to reduce waste volume by more than 80%. The project should bring numerous environmental benefits, including reducing carbon dioxide emissions by 880 to 1111 tonnes per year, cutting chemical fertiliser use and water consumption by 20% and increasing carbon sequestration in soil by the same amount. It will also address negative environmental impacts associated with using sludge in agriculture.
Converting waste heat from industry into energy (LIFE-HEAT-R)
This project will showcase a marketable, new technology for directly converting waste heat into electricity, based on a thermoelectric principle called the Seebeck effect. The technology consists of a modular unit using multiple thermo-electric generator cells controlled through a patented programmable control unit based on system-on-chip technology. The technology will be demonstrated in industrial sectors with high levels of waste heat emissions, through three pilot projects (classified by temperature ranges) that will permit part of the wasted energy to be recovered in the form of heat and transformed into electricity. The net effect will be to reduce greenhouse gas emissions.
Substituting safer alternatives to conventional flame retardants (LIFE-FLAREX)
Flame retardants are a group of environmental contaminants used at relatively high concentrations in many sectors, notably the textile industry. Many of them are considered toxic, persistent and bio-accumulative. This project will support the substitution of flame retardants containing bromine, formaldehyde and antimony, used in textile finishing products with safer alternatives. It will identify potential substitutes and test and evaluate them at pre-industrial and industrial scale. It will thereby encourage the implementation and update of the REACH legislation.
Recovering nitrogen and phosphorous from wastewater sludge (LIFE ENRICH)
The wastewater treatment sector discharges a lot of reusable nutrients into the environment. LIFE ENRICH will design and build a new sludge line configuration in Murcia Este’s wastewater treatment plant to recover nitrogen and phosphorous for use in agriculture, either directly on crops or for fertiliser. The project will also define optimal recipes for fertilisation using products obtained from the process and demonstrate their agronomic properties. By recovering phosphorous, a critical raw material, this LIFE project will contribute directly to the implementation of the EU Circular Economy Action Plan.
Enabling treatment plants to cope with excess toxic loads (Life BACTIWATER)
Many urban wastewater treatment plants have biological units, which contain bacterial cultures. An increase in the toxic load of wastewater harms the units’ cleaning capacity. Such increases come from uncontrolled discharges with excess toxic loads and are often seasonal, coinciding with activities of certain industrial processes such as wine production or the canning sector. Life BACTIWATER aims to speed up the recovery of the treatment process when disrupted by these impacts by fostering the right bacterial action. The project expects to reduce recovery time by 20% and cut the amount of pollutants reaching natural water bodies when treatment plants fail.
Reducing ammonia emissions from muck-spreading (LIFE-ARIMEDA)
According to the European Environment Agency, Spain was one of six EU Member States that, in 2014, exceeded the ammonia ceiling set out in the National Emission Ceilings Directive. This project aims to reduce the ammonia emissions associated with the spreading of manure in agriculture, by using the diluted liquid fraction of slurry and digestate in precision fertigation (fertilisers + irrigation) techniques. Through large-scale field trials it will show that it’s possible to replace synthetic fertilisers and reduce the risks of eutrophication and nitrate leaching in agricultural soils.
Demonstrating zero liquid discharge in the metal industry (LIFE DIME)
Metal surface treatment processes such as degreasing, acid pickling, alloy baths or lacquering generate large amounts of toxic liquid wastes. LIFE DIME will seek to prove that three effluent treatment technologies (extraction, crystallisation and membrane distillation) can be integrated into a ‘zero liquid discharge’ process in a new pilot plant. This solution is designed to recover raw materials from the hazardous waste stream for reuse, namely hydrochloric acid and metal salts. As well as avoiding the need for sludge disposal, the recovered materials could be worth an estimated €550,000 per plant per year.
A new treatment technology for excess nitrates (Life LIBERNITRATE)
In Europe, 87% of groundwater is polluted by excess nitrates, and in intensive farming and cattle areas, the concentration in groundwater can reach one to seven times the legal level. Life LIBERNITRATE will build a prototype plant for the depuration of water with a high nitrate content. The plant will feature an adsorption bed made of active silica, obtained through a second prototype for treating waste ashes from the controlled incineration of rice straw. The project also plans to raise awareness amongst farmers of reducing nitrates at source by cutting their use of nitrogen fertilisers.
New ways of removing natural radioactivity from drinking water (LIFE ALCHEMIA)
Naturally occurring radioactivity is present in sources of drinking water and can be a threat to human health. The most common current treatment, reverse osmosis, has a very high carbon footprint and generates large volumes of reject water containing radioactivity that requires further treatment. LIFE ALCHEMIA will develop four pilot plants in Spain and Estonia to test new ways of removing natural radioactivity from drinking water. These bed filters and hydrous manganese oxide technologies are expected to reduce the naturally occurring radioactive materials generated during the removal of radioactivity by 90%, as well as cutting treatment costs and greenhouse gas emissions.
Obtaining gelatine and collagen from slaughterhouse wastes (LIFE byProtVal)
There is a need for improved techniques for the recovery and treatment of animal by-product wastes. The processing water and unmeltable residue (greaves) resulting from the rendering of animal fats and other by-products are potential sources of valuable gelatine and hydrolysed collagen. This LIFE project will show new treatment processes to recover the two desired materials and test collagen derivatives for use as chemical products, fertiliser or feed.
Remediating soils with steel and power station residues (SUBproducts4LIFE)
Soils in many parts of Europe have been degraded by industrial activities. Residues from power stations (coal ash and synthetic gypsum) and steel works (blast furnace and steelmaking slag) could be used to remediate those soils. This project is dedicated to creating such an industrial symbiosis between industries and contaminated sites. Large quantities of the four ‘sub-products’ will be used in trials on former mines to improve soil and water quality, for instance, by reducing levels of arsenic and mercury in soil and leachate water through ‘semi-natural’ processes. The fixing capacity of the four residues will be verified in real-scale conditions, backed up by a life-cycle assessment, circular economy plan and replicability and transfer plan for each material.
A cost-effective network of safe drinking fountains along the pilgrims’ route (LIFE WATER WAY)
The presence of drinking fountains of good water quality along major walking routes, such as the Camino de Santiago in Galicia, could reduce consumption of bottled water and provide an inspiration to those responsible for managing other long-distance paths in Europe. LIFE WATER WAY will install 27 drinking water supply points of guaranteed good quality along a 155.2 km stretch of the pilgrims’ route, spaced about an hour’s walking distance apart. Renewable energy will be used to treat and pump the water with users paying a small fee to obtain it from a vending system. The new system should lead to a reduction in waste plastic bottles of 1.67 tonnes per year. If successful, 90 municipalities along the Camino de Santiago will install similar systems.
Using weather radars and digital radio to speed up forest fire response (LIFETEC)
North-west Spain suffers the most forest fires in the country. These cause significant environmental damage. Early detection is critical for reducing response times and therefore the final burned area, along with improved communication and coordination. LIFETEC’s objective is to show the efficacy of using existing weather radars to detect forest fires at an early stage; it will develop and test new early detection algorithms for this. The project will also demonstrate that TETRA (Terrestrial Trunked Radio) digital radio is a better technology than commercial mobile systems, which offer poor network coverage in rural areas, for communicating with and coordinating fire-fighting teams.
LIFE Gobernanza e Información Medioambientales
Increasing awareness of endangered brown bear populations (LIFE NATURA 2000 + BEAR)
Northern Spain is home to two small and endangered subpopulations of brown bears. Research shows that there is a lack of local awareness and acceptance of these bears and the Natura 2000 network in general. This project will engage with local communities to encourage changes in behavior and promote governance structures for better conservation of Natura 2000 sites and endangered bears. This will include media campaigns and participation at local events. The impact of the campaign will be measured through opinion polls.
LIFE Adaptación al Cambio Climático
Helping smaller municipalities increase climate resilience (LIFE GOOD LOCAL ADAPT)
Towns and small cities are often less able to mainstream climate change adaptation into policies and practices than larger urban areas. This LIFE project is demonstrating that it can be done, by helping five municipalities in the Basque region to increase their resilience to heat waves and water scarcity. As well as green infrastructure in public spaces, this will involve renovating a demonstration building in Balmaseda to showcase five technologies for limiting the impact of heatwaves. The building will continue to be open to visitors and act as a reference after the project.
Developing a common approach to sustainable energy and climate action (LIFE ADAPTATE)
Municipalities across Europe could benefit from a common methodology for developing sustainable energy and climate action plans. LIFE ADAPTATE will help six municipalities in Spain, Portugal and Latvia to develop such plans and begin to implement climate adaptation actions to increase resilience to floods and forest fires, for instance. All six will also sign up to the Covenant of Mayors. Lessons from the project will be turned into guidelines to inspire towns and cities throughout the EU.
Testing cool pavements’ impact on urban heat (LIFE HEATLAND)
Cool pavements are an emerging technology for reducing the ‘urban heat island’ effect, whereby temperatures remain high in built-up areas. LIFE HEATLAND will develop a new surface mixture and install it in Murcia, where one of the first monitored trials of cool pavements on city roads will take place. By collecting key data 24/7, the project will be able to devise a mathematical model to predict the effectiveness of the cool pavement in different urban areas. This will be tested in at least four other European cities. The expected impact of the new surface is significant: lowering pavement temperatures by 10°C and the surrounding air temperature by up to 1.5°C, as well as cutting energy use by refrigeration devices and street lighting.
Encouraging farmers to adapt in Mediterranean dry farming areas (LIFE AMDRYC4)
Mediterranean dry farming areas are especially vulnerable to climate change impacts. To build resilience, this LIFE project will implement adaptation measures and promote them through a land stewardship entity and voluntary agreements with farmers. It will also distribute guidelines for applying accounting methodologies for organic carbon and ecosystem services. Sustainable, smart and integrated management is expected to lead to an increase in carbon sequestration activity and biodiversity and a reduction in soil loss.
LIFE Mitigación del Cambio Climático
Testing a local market for climatic credits for forests (LIFE CLIMARK)
Sustainable forest management is vital to enhancing the mitigation capacity of forests, but there are no incentives for owners to manage their forests for mitigation purposes. To provide such incentives, LIFE CLIMARK will establish a local market of ‘climatic credits’ to promote multifunctional forest management for mitigation. The scheme will be trialled in Catalonia, Spain, and Veneto, Italy, where credits will be awarded for forestry practices that support three ecosystem services: carbon sink capacity, water use efficiency and biodiversity. This will be the first compensation scheme to include carbon emissions reduced or avoided through forest fire prevention measures. Replication will be ensured through engaging with forest owners in France and Spain and via a guide for policy-makers.
Reducing emissions by feeding goats with citrus orchard and rice straw waste (LIFE LowCarbon Feed)
Eliminating rice straw and pruning waste from citrus orchards would save more than 3.7 million tonnes CO2 equivalent per year. In this project, the two waste streams will be converted into a climate-friendly feed for goats that will lower their intestinal methane emissions. Goats consuming the feed are expected to give off 20% less greenhouse gas emissions. Goat farming in Europe is responsible for more than 1.4 tonnes CO2 equivalent per year, so replication of the project could have a significant impact on this major source of emissions.
Anexo (en inglés) de los 139 proyectos de la UE seleccionados en LIFE Medio Ambiente y Clima